Pushing back the Horizon

So lately I’ve been thinking about a ‘fact’ I was told as a child: on a clear day you can see as far as Wales from the top of Mt. Lienster.

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Being young and fascinated I was always a little awestruck at the notion I could see all the way across the sea and into another country, but it was never clear enough when I was up there.

So fast forward to last Friday when I went to Inis Mór with the family. We were on the boat trying to spot the coast through the overcast and misty day. My younger brother was reading the leaflets handed out by the tourist information guys and informed me that Dún Aengus is a fort built on the side of a 100 meter high cliff face. My number senses began tingling. How far could you see from there? Could you see the mainland, the other islands, boats how far out at see?

I had 40 mins to kill and so the 3G went on and I began googling. Wikipedia politely informed me you can use the Pythagoras theorem to estimate, based on assumption of a spherical earth and no atmospheric refraction or occlusion. Distance to the Horizon in km = 3.57 by square root of the vision height.

I whipped out the mobile office excel app and banged in the numbers for 1 to 100 meters and bobs your mother’s brother. 35 km.

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Distance from Dún Aengus to mainland is 12 km, so on a clear day you’d be likely to see exactly what your enemy clan on the mainland were plotting.

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View from Dún Aengus on a clear day looking northeast towards the mainland of galway, Ireland. Clearly visible are the coast and other landmasses in the ocean.

So back to Co Wexford and normality today and sitting out having a beer and a barbecue I remembered my question. Could you actually see to Wales?

Using the same formula as before and data from wikipedia we get a best case distance of 128.93 km.

Daft Logic says the closest point of land in the mainland UK from Mount lienster is indeed Wales, a little island called Ramsay island near the town of St. David’s off the coast of Pembrokeshire Coast national park a distance of 123.75 km.

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The closest point of land in Wales from Mount Lienster is off the coast of Pembrokeshire.

That’s just inside our calculated visible distance. Amazingly enough, it turns out to just be on the limit of plausibility.
Score one for science and maths I guess!

Edit: since posting this I did a little more digging around and found two very interesting images.

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This map shows signal strength from the transmitter atop Mount Lienster. We can see it is strongest in areas closest to the transmitter, with “shadows” cast behind the hills, and weakening as the distance becomes greater from the source. Notably, the signal reaches well into Wales.

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Mt. Snowden in Wales is at a distance of 189 km and an elevation of 1,085 m, making it an excellent point on the horizon to search for, right about 72.5 degrees East of North.

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Urban transport revolution – Car2go

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Since arriving in america earlier this summer I’ve been fascinated by the cars. The licence plates, trying to see all fifty states plates, and figuring out how catalogue them (st8pl8 for android). The cars themselves, muscle cars like mustangs, corvettes, and Chryslers, the huge pickup trucks (for city living, mind) and then there are the whacky, insane and downright strange ones. I saw a guys bonnet (hood, as the locals say) blow right off his car and miss a little girl walking by no more than two feet. The guy I bought my mattress from on craigslist delivered it on the back of a convertible, tied down with twine.
The busses here are ran on clean natural gas rather than diesel or petrol like home. Nice one, MTS (San Diego metropolitan transit service).

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But the coolest thing by far I’ve seen are the communal car2go cars. They’re smart car sized, and operated by any subscriber to the service. There’s an initial once off fee and then you only get charged by the distance you drive. They’re electric, so it can be clean energy with no pollution. You don’t own the car, you just use it when you need it. You use your smartphone to see where the closest one is to you (there are 3 available within 600 metres at the time of writing this post.) You then use your smartphone to unlock the vehicle and drive to the destination, then park up, get out and the car is ready for use by the next user. Since these cars are electric, you can also view the amount of power and therefore range of your car (you can use this low-on-power car to get you to a full car if you need… Cheeky!)

Check it out, there are services available in several cities, and I believe the idea started in Europe, so its a little bit of home while away, sharing with your fellow man!

http://sandiego.car2go.com/

Essential blogging

So I’m living in San Diego for just over a week now, and I think we could say I have any of the ‘must purchase immediately’ shopping done. I mean, I found a bike and a futon outside some dudes house who wanted to get rid of them, along with a busted up surf board that we now use as a table, but we had to BUY everything else.

So what do Irish students buy when they land in San Diego?

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If you manufacture anything you see on this blog, congratulations. You have an essential product for the Irish student market. Only about 20,000 of us here for the summer. You sir, are onto a winner.

I’m a Scorpio and…

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So I’m talking to a young upwardly mobile couple in the bar today, and discussing everything from tonights international ‘friendly’ with the England Soccer team, to apple vs android and everything in between, when she mentions that a milestone birthday is coming up, in November (yeah, that important!), and I mention my birthday is November also. So suddenly she’s telling me about how we’re both Scorpios, and that’s why we get along so well and how he’s a Leo, but just barely so he’s got traits from (?whatever comes before Leo) and how that has some profound effect on how they blah nblah blah.
It comes up how there are twelve horoscopes and twelve months, but they don’t exactly line up. So I pay no pass on it, and go about my day until I’m on the phone to the girlfriend and I see there is a star on horizon, and I see it flicker.
I remember seeing a light like that in the sky while looking up at Jupiter or Venus when I was young, and thinking maybe its one of the planets. Then I said on the phone to the girlfriend ‘there is a planet in the north west part of the sky’ and the penny dropped. The only star (visible to me) or planetary body to stay in one place is the north star. All the rest are constantly moving across the sky (when really its the rotation of the earth that’s moving the lights across my sky) and it suddenly occurred to me that not only am I moving relative to them, but they also move relative to the sun.

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So that’s what it means when they say ‘Saturn is in Gemini’, its a reference to where the body is relative to the ‘top’ side of the Sun, like a calendar to keep track of where things are.

But now my predicament lies in how we designated ‘north’! Or Capricorn, as I believe its designated, The first of the horoscopes in our calendar. Is it linked to where the sun is on our horizon at noon? The solstice? The equinox? (Or is that moons?)

What concerns me is how it was decided that the names be designated to these ever moving, ever ponderable, or how it was decided the lengths and durations of the solar seasons would run for. How to explain to so many a concept so foreign. If I could explain that kind of depth to another, why couldn’t I convince them that my design is best.
Understanding how to explain is where it all starts. If you can manage that, you can sell them whatever you want to sell them. And that’s what’s its all about, sales baby.

OK, so I’m watching Prometheus.

I’m watching Prometheus having a few casual perlenbachers (thanks lidl) and the geologist guy just heard there was a life ‘ping’ one click west of them.
Just so we are on the same page, the movie is set on a moon of a planet about two years travel distance away from earth in 2089.
The geologist reacted badly to hearing about this potential life source (I like rocks, that’s all I like) and said ‘let’s go east’, to avoid the unknown danger of the unknown.
Then you thought. East. East as in on a map, with north at the top you move towards the right of the page.
But how the hell did these people agree on what east was on this new moon planet?
On earth north is at the top of (most) maps, and we decided this based on the fact that the sun moves across the sky east to west, so we’d better keep one of the other two fairly constant. It doesn’t hurt that we developed the compass (thank you ferro-magnetic earth core) to help abstractly identify north.
But on this new planet moon, how do they assign west? What if they were upside down when arriving, and left is actually east? What if they have a rotation that isn’t effectively coplanar with the orbit of their sun? What if they can’t agree upon which way is left?

Which makes me think, how did we decide to draw maps ‘facing’ up? If I got my map of Ireland, or limerick ( both of which I took off my wall yesterday whilst moving out of my student accommodation) and turned it upsidedown would it not still show me how to get to the crescent shopping centre? The shape hasn’t changed, only my reference system to it.
Or how about the map of San Diego I am about to form in my mind this coming summer? What if I wanted to ‘learn’ it upsidedown, with a west rising sun, and a south facing map? I could do it, I just couldn’t refer to any other maps written in ‘north’.

A consultant, I ask ya!

Had my first (informal) consultation as a user experience designer today. By that I mean I had a chat with the MD of a new startup that provides parking payment by text message, who happens to be a customer in the pub I work in! We were chatting about my exams, and what it is exactly that I do… (Mobile phones, power tools, household appliances, you know, designing that kind of stuff) and he asked me about signage. (I thought he said silage) he clarified, and I went on to explain about how we did graphics last year, instructions for wiring a plug without using text. He proceeded to tell how his device worked: you’re at the carpark, no coins. You go over to the machine, you send a text with how long you want to pay for to the mobile number displayed, And presto! The ticket is printed. Its charged to your phone, and you won’t get clamped.
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This is a retrofit to existing machines, the blue ones you see in car parks with the green button you push for tickets. The challenge he told me isn’t the technology, its rolling them out to town councils (36 in Ireland)
Where it really comes in handy is for business reps, who may have 15 different places to visit, therefore 15 tickets, and the accountant has to trawl through the mountain of receipts of every rep every week.
He asked me if I’d have a look at the signage because the guy who was putting it together was a graphic designer, and he needed to be sure it works from a follow the instructions point of view.
And that’s how I landed my first consultation.

New fivers!

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Not a week had passed since my post on notes and coins and the ECB decided they’d release a new series of fivers. Little ironic that we’ve had them since 2002 and the second I go learning about them they change. Blast it anyway.

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These new fivers are part of the ‘Europa’ series of euro notes, and the main reason for introducing them is to increase security, make forgeries more difficult and to reflect the updated map of Europe. Not the updated map in 1945 after the second world war ended, the new eurozone, reflecting how it has gotten bigger since 2002, this map just reflects that Cyprus (off the map to the east on the first generation of fivers) and Malta have joined since then.

I have yet to touch and feel a new one, but I’m keeping track of when I do, on http://en.eurobilltracker.com/ which let’s you track where the bank notes in your wallet have been before they got to you!

to korea!

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From an earlier blog post and the general hype around North Korea these days, I thought it would be fun/interesting to have a look at how I would set about seeing the place myself, being open minded and all that. 

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First on the agenda would be travelling there. I did a quick google search, and found out that North Korea has its own National airline, Air Koryo (link). Good start. I Looked at where they fly, and much to my dismay, they don’t have regular service to either Dublin OR Shannon. Drat. A quick search revealed they DO however have a Service office in Berlin. Great, all I have to do is hop on the Airbus to Germany. Or so I thought. I then tried to book a flight from Berlin to Pyongyang, only to find the service is unavailable due to Air Koryo being on the list of  Air carriers banned from operating in the EU, because of of maintenance concerns and noise emissions. Double Drat. 

The next closest place on the list of airports it still flies to is Vladivostok, Russia. So assuming I can get there reasonably cheap and easily, I’m in business. Quick hop onto eBookers.ie suggests that the easiest way to get there is via Charles De Gaul in France, then on to Seoul  South Korea, then back to Vladivostok, Russia (€4,085.38), before onto Pyongyang. Maybe I could hop off in Seoul and just bus/train it Across? The alternative is to hop off at Moscow and from there to Vladivostok, and forward with the original plan of arriving in Pyongyang Sunan International Airport (around $600 USD). So without €5,000 to burn, I wont be taking that route, and a quick read of Wiki travel’s page on North Korea says-

“Tourist travel to North Korea is only possible as part of a guided tour. Independent travel is not permitted. If you are not prepared to accept severe limitations on your movements, behaviour, and freedom of expression, you should not travel to North Korea.”

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They reckon most travellers who get in do so via Beijing embassy. Travel permission, two passport photos and $45 USD should get you in, provided you’re not a journalist or suspected of being one. (Not a hope of getting after writing this article I fear!) 

The Guide companies are all ran by Korean International Travel Company, with the exception of a few who are ran directly by government ministries and the DPRK NGOs, and its their guides who show you around anyway. You can’t leave the guides. independent travel is not allowed. 

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So lets say im in Beijing, and have got my visa sorted out. My next step is to choose a tour from the list, and my own preference is economy. That translates to €845 for a 4 day stay in DPRK. This pays for all the food, accommodation etc, but they recommend another €200 would do you the week on drinks, souvenirs, attraction entry and amusement park rides (remember they’ll be planning your trip). so call that €1000, provided I got to China, which was €600 on eBookers. 

This is <just about> possible on a budget of €2000 per person. 

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And assuming that north korea doesn’t go ARGO on it and decide to pull hostages in demand for western respect or something, I’d be fairly ok. I mean, provided I don’t say anything too loud or crass, I suspect I’d have an eye opening time. 

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I think I’d try communism lite (Russia, China, Cuba) ahead of North Korea however. The Cold War has cooled off, tensions are low and they like making money too much to endanger tourists. Korea however, is capable of anything. 

Edit: While I was writing this, my access to Air Koryo’s website was cut off. Might be just a strange coincidence, but it sure is spooky!

Artefacts in Music, the Psychical having of Discs and Covers.

Contemporary Design Culture

Artefacts in Music, the Psychical having of Discs and Covers.

Edit:~ This week the Receivership of Xtravision in Ireland was announced (times, 2013). In January we lost HMV. Physical music is an industry in decline. I for one will lament its passing.~

In today’s digital world where music is stored as numbers on a hard drive or tucked away on ‘the cloud’, it is often with nostalgia that we look back at the music collections we accumulated before iPods, Napster and MP3s made our musical life portable and disposable.

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Figure 1. Album cover art has long been a medium for communicating messages about the band, the record, or society in general.

I was born in the 80s, grew up listening to my mother’s CDs in the kitchen on her CD /cassette tape/ Radio. Kris Kristofferson, Queen, Meat Loaf, ‘A Woman’s Heart’, Lenard Cohen, U2, Thin Lizzie, Roy Orbison, and a host of other CDs were stacked beside the black rugby ball shaped player (Sharp, if I’m not mistaken.) My older brother and I would stay up late in the kitchen listening to the music and picking out what song we would listen to next, then my mother would say one more song each and we had to go to bed. He would invariably pick Sting and The Police or Eurythmics, and then try to influence my song too. I would pick something like Meat Loaf’s ‘You took the Words Right Out of my Mouth’, as its intro meant that I really had played two tracks, and I had somehow bested the system. These are some of the happiest memories from my childhood, and as a young man I look fondly on the time spent in my pyjamas sitting on the kitchen table reading/holding the cases the CDs came in. Hearing the music brings me right back, and I really can’t imagine it being quite the same scrolling through an iPod menu or typing artist names into a search engine.

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Figure 2. Part of my CD collection (from when I still bought CDs….)

Let’s say I have kids in years to come, how do I give my music to them, on a hard drive? Do I say ‘go onto Soundcloud and look up Them Crooked Vultures’? Hand them my iPod and say ‘it’s on the UL second year playlist’?

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Figure 3. Discovering music was a big part of my childhood. Will that be as easy for my children?

I played in two Bands and a school Orchestra, and have music we played saved on my computer. We went recording on five separate occasions, and we got one session made into CDs. This was in 2010, way after I stopped buying CDs. Why did we make a CD then? I think the truth was we wanted validation. Before you had a physical hard copy of the music you made, you were still bedroom rockers. Having an actual hard copy you could show your friends, sell at a gig (or send to the local radio station) meant you were actual musicians. It also meant that the music would be available long after the laptops died, the hard drives corrupted, and the websites taken down. But it also gave an opportunity to present a printed package with our music, to say a little about us and give a little context maybe. We paid a company in England to produce 100 copies of the 5 track EP as a Digipack, or cardboard sleeve. I assembled the artwork from work a friend of ours had done in NCAD during her undergrad studies. We wanted something moody and obscure, and went with an almost purely greyscale colour scheme. I taught myself how to use a vector based imaging package to get the artwork just right for the printers. In the end, we had something that we had done ourselves that would fit on the shelves beside the work of our idols. We also paid a company to host the files online so we could get it onto the iTunes store. (Search ‘Emptyhead’ on the iTunes store, it’s the first one that comes up) .ImageImage

 Figure 4. the CD I produced with my band, Emptyhead

You’re wondering where I’m going with this. How we receive music today has changed for the worse. The experience of walking into a music shop and sifting through the cases for something that catches your eye is one I used to love, I would spend a good half hour in my local shop every time I was in town just being surrounded by fellow musicians, music lovers and likeminded people. I would talk to the assistants and learn about the artists, hear stories of when the guy met Bob Dylan, or worked as a roadie for Oasis. I would see the guys in bands leaving in gig posters and try get the shop to sell their music. There were posters and badges and merchandise. There was a real sense of community. Now if I’m browsing music it’s either on some illegal download site or on the hard drive of a friend who happened to have the files I wanted.

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Figure 5. Music shops, where likeminded people hang out and trade ideas

I recently took a trip to Holland, and was on an errand with a friend to drop a package to a record shop her sister’s friend works in. The shop sold vinyl records, and leafing through the sleeves was like stepping back into my teenage years. I saw my mother’s generation, 1960-1980 and some speciality sections, jazz and blues mostly. Then I noticed other modern day bands. ‘The Resistance’ by Muse, released in 2011. ‘Them Crooked Vultures’, released 2009. ‘Broken Boy Soldiers’ by The Raconteurs released 2006. This is the music of my generation, on a format that has been obsolete for decades. What is making these artists publish on such an obscure medium when the music sales industry is collapsing all around them?

It’s precisely because the user experience with digital music is so poor that we are reverting to more pleasant methods. Vinyl has to be king of the music formats. Nothing beats the hum of needle on tracks, the crackle before the track begins, the depth of sound produced by grooves in plastic. I remember playing with an old record player in my Granddad’s house, speeding up the tracks for different disk sizes, or slowing the rotation with my fingers. The horrified yells of ‘you’ll scratch it!’ from my aunt, watching her collection become needle fodder from a six year old. Typically people have a dedicated setup for listening pleasure with a vinyl player, as opposed to the small, cheap, sonically deficient stereo speakers that the laptop manufacturer could get away with installing, or the rattley speakers on your car radio system. To an avid listener there is nothing more frustrating than hearing poor quality sound.

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Figure 6. There packaging is almost as valuable as the music

 

I bought a record in the shop. It was my first time ever buying vinyl, and my first time paying for music in about eight years. I made a decision to purchase ‘In Rainbows’ by Radiohead, because in 2007 the band took the decision to let the person downloading the music decide themselves how much to pay. I paid nothing, and got the music for free, much like I had been doing with every other artist at the time, but this time I was telling the band I was doing it. I absolutely loved the album, and knowing Radiohead’s philosophy I felt no small amount of guilt for valuing the album so poorly. In a way I was getting much more than just a pressed sheet of plastic, I was sending a message to the artists that I cared about them. Does this make me feel better about spending almost twenty Euros for something I already got for free? Most definitely. My User Experience of the purchase was so much better, even if I didn’t have anything to play it on, and had to lug it all the back to Ireland on a Ryanair flight in my rugsack with my week’s provisions.

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Figure 7. My first Vinyl…

When I was actually making the transaction, the friends I was there with were done with their business, just waiting for me. I brought the sleeve to the counter, and the guy asked if we could have a listen to it. I agreed, and we listened to the first two tracks. He compared the singer’s style to an artist I had never heard before from Canada, and some of the guitar sounds to another artist from America. He gave me the names, and we listened to some of the work by the American. Certainly there were similarities. And here I am enjoying myself talking about music, discovering artists and getting an education all at the same time. It was intimate in a way you just can’t experience with a computer screen and a mouse. And it took me like fifteen minutes to buy. Later on that trip we had a talk from the guys in the Phillips research centre on slow design, slowing down the parts we enjoy in life and enjoying them for longer. In my head, bells are ringing ‘BINGO, that’s exactly what happened in the record shop!’ that experience isn’t available online. It’s through interaction with people that we share and enjoy the music we listen to. It’s fine to say ‘I bought a new album on iTunes’ but the fact that you don’t have anything to hold and own is really off-putting and can devalue the transaction. If our concern is production for profit, or sales figures then we really need to make sure the customer gets the feeling that they got a good deal. They need to emotionally invest whilst financially investing.

ImageImageThe Beatles originally wanted to release ‘Magical Mystery Tour’ ( as an interactive activity pack, with crayons and puzzles to do while listening to the music, having already pushed the idea of what a band can do on an album with Sgt. Peppers Lonely Heart Club Band earlier that year. Ultimately the idea was rejected because it pushed the price point for a record too high, and the record label felt it didn’t serve their interests enough to pursue it any further.

        

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Figure 8. Box sets are a great way of pushing the price point up on purchases of CDs, DVDs and Video games.

Today, many albums, video games, and DVDs come as a ‘deluxe edition’, with extended footage/game play/audio, and many times a selection of posters, figurines, and other artefacts related to the release. These deluxes cost more, but enthusiastic fans pay more because they want to connect more to the product. Limited edition pressings and film frames can often fetch a high price long after the release date as collector’s items. Try releasing a deluxe download, see how quick the extra footage makes it to YouTube. The fact that a vinyl record can’t be copied and shared online makes it precious. If you loan it to your friend, you are at the loss of it until you get it back. It is an object of desire. If my friend wants to give me the music from his hard drive, I ask what size it is. I am limited in the size of my collection by the capacity of whatever it is I store it on. My iPod is full, so I can’t download that new Ke$ha single. Pity.

It’s not all bad, we don’t have to carry a pouch full of CDs or tapes with us on the bus for our diskman/walkman, but we do lose out on having that CD case to get signed backstage at the concert. I can’t wait for the day I see an iPod autographed by P Diddy or Lady Gaga for sale on eBay.

I recently saw a news piece about music sales figures, following HMV going out of business in Ireland. People buying vinyl in shops in England were receiving the songs synced to their cloud/iTunes store when they purchased the physical copy at no extra cost (Johnson, 2013). The guy can walk out the door listening to the song he just bought on his iPhone, with the disk and artwork in his bag to peruse on his commute home. Excellent, best of both worlds. He gets the ease of digital with the pleasure of owning the hardcopy for the same price. The music industry is reacting, albeit only to stem the flow of money haemorrhaging out of their pockets into Apple’s coffers. When Apple decided music was its thing, they didn’t ask anyone for permission, they didn’t check to see if Geffen records were ok with it beforehand. They went out and took it. They made it so easy to do music their way, they damn near collapsed the distribution industry. They sold the players, they sold the music, they sold the headphones and they controlled who they sold. They created an overnight monopoly, and left the CD manufacturers with their trousers down and wallet empty. But they couldn’t compete with the feeling of just having it in your hands, having it on your CD case, having it spinning on your deck.

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Ever been to a party where the music is on an iPod? Suddenly everyone is the DJ and the listening experience is about as continuous as the light from a lighthouse. ‘Did you hear the remix of that? It’s on my iPod, let me plug it in’, after twenty seconds of the song. Maybe I’m an old fogie living with whizz kids, but I find it hard to relate to an artist whose work has been truncated and bastardised almost out of recognition. Who remixed it? ‘Haven’t a clue, it was on exfm yesterday and I just clicked LOVE.’

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The physical artwork of albums is iconic, you can see the prism splitting light on a black background, and think ‘pink Floyd’, but C:\\users\cathal\music\pinkfloyd\darksideofthemoon hasn’t the same effect at all. Visual and auditory memory are so strongly linked that many companies now have music instead of a slogan. McDonalds have had that ‘bah da bap BAAH DAH’ theme since Justin Timberlake first did it in one of their ads in 2005. You see the image, and you think cheeseburger.

With music it’s exactly the same. Band logos are the graffiti on every pencilcase, schoolbag and copybook from here to China. Prince even changed his name to a symbol because it was on the front of all his records, how would you go about typing that into a searchbar? American hard/alternative rockers Tool released ’10,000 days in 2006 As a CD, with an inbuilt 3D photo album of artwork done by Alex Grey, visible by using the inbuilt stereoscopic glasses in the case. It nicely compliments the ‘expand your mind’ ethos touted by the band. The band’s lead guitarist and artistic director, Adam Jones won the 2006 Grammy for ‘best recording package’ for the album. (Acadamy, 2006)

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Figure 9. Stereoscopic goggles inset in Tool’s album ‘10,000 Days’ Packaging

I recently saw a video online in which a student used a 3d printer to print a vinyl record playable on her stereo system. She had only the digital audio file to begin with, and had to translate that into the little bumps and groves a needle uses to make the sound (Aghessi, 2012). Granted, it wasn’t the best quality, but her 3d printer was the limiting factor, its resolution wasn’t high enough to go any smaller to make more accurate bumps. In the video she explained how a one minute audio file was a huge file with a massive resolution (200 mb), and how each song file was made up of about 4,000,000 triangular grooves aligned in spiral pattern. She saw it as the return and full circle from physical to digital and back again, as these 3d files could be copied and shared, like the mp3s we share today.

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Figure 10. Amanda with the 3d printed record, and snapshots of the audio (physical) file

Social impact. The  things we use everyday don’t define us how we use them does. Its when we see somebody do something really clever or innovative that we can really appreciate the beauty of the things all around us. An internet phenomenon known as ‘sleevefacing’ became popular in 2006, where people put the sleeves of LP records in situ, making optical illusions. An advertisement for Eircom music hub’ on Irish TV in 2011 was an excellent illustration of this phenomenon.

 

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Figure 11. Notable examples of Sleevefacing

 We lost something when we stopped buying hard music, but we’re finally getting it back by pioneering artists making the stand to keep the experience alive, and enhancing it further by pushing the limits of what’s possible, and how we get our music. If we care about the customer, maybe he’ll car about our product, and maybe that’s worth something.

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Works Cited

Acadamy, T.R. (2006) http://www.grammy.com, 31 dec, [Online], Available: http://www.grammy.com/nominees/search?artist=&field_nominee_work_value=&year=2006&genre=22 [2 may 2013].

Aghessi, A. (2012) instructables.com, 12 dec, [Online], Available: http://www.instructables.com/id/3D-Printed-Record/ [02 june 2013].

Johnson, B. (2013) Sky news, 20 april, [Online], Available: http://news.sky.com/story/1080623/vinyl-releases-help-boost-record-store-day [2013].

times, t.i. (2013) irishtimes.com, 01 may, [Online], Available: http://www.irishtimes.com/business/sectors/retail-and-services/xtra-vision-appoints-receivers-1.1376458 [02 may 2013].